Rust by Example

54.1 Alternate/custom key types

Any type that implements the Eq and Hash traits can be a key in HashMap. This includes:

  • bool (though not very useful since there is only two possible keys)
  • int, uint, and all variations thereof (see VecMap for a more streamlined map implementation keyed by uint)
  • String and &str (protip: you can have a HashMap keyed by String and call .get() with an &str)

Note that f32 and f64 do not implement Hash, likely because floating-point precision errors would make using them as hashmap keys horribly error-prone.

All collection classes implement Eq and Hash if their contained type also respectively implements Eq and Hash. For example, Vec<T> will implement Hash if T implements Hash.

You can easily implement Eq and Hash for a custom type with just one line: #[derive(PartialEq, Eq, Hash)]

The compiler will do the rest. If you want more control over the details, you can implement Eq and/or Hash yourself. This guide will not cover the specifics of implementing Hash.

To play around with using a struct in HashMap, let's try making a very simple user logon system:

#![feature(hash)] use std::collections::HashMap; // Eq requires that you derive PartialEq on the type. #[derive(PartialEq, Eq, Hash)] struct Account<'a>{ username: &'a str, password: &'a str, } struct AccountInfo<'a>{ name: &'a str, email: &'a str, } type Accounts<'a> = HashMap<Account<'a>, AccountInfo<'a>>; fn try_logon<'a>(accounts: &Accounts<'a>, username: &'a str, password: &'a str){ println!("Username: {}", username); println!("Password: {}", password); println!("Attempting logon..."); let logon = Account { username: username, password: password, }; match accounts.get(&logon) { Some(account_info) => { println!("Successful logon!"); println!("Name: {}",; println!("Email: {}",; }, _ => println!("Login failed!"), } } fn main(){ let mut accounts: Accounts = HashMap::new(); let account = Account { username: "j.everyman", password: "password123", }; let account_info = AccountInfo { name: "John Everyman", email: "", }; accounts.insert(account, account_info); try_logon(&accounts, "j.everyman", "psasword123"); try_logon(&accounts, "j.everyman", "password123"); }